Semiconductor Anodes

Anodes of Doped Metal Oxides are generally called Semiconductor anodes. There is a large array of different types. Tin Oxide (SnO2, Stannic Oxide) doped with Sb (ATO, a common type). Also Tin Oxide doped with Bi is another.
The ATO anode does not appear to be very useful for Perchlorate making. It may be usable for Chlorate making. This type of anode has found application in waste water treatment as it has a high Oxygen evolution potential (will not liberate Oxygen) when used in these's applications, eg. US 4839007. Also see further reading section.
Other examples of Semiconductor anode (with/without top coats) from RPW are:
1, Ti/SnO2+Sb+MnOx/PbO2
2, Ti/SnO2+Sb/PbO2
3, Ti/SnO2+MnOx+Y/PbO2(quite good)
4,Ti/SnO2+CeO2/PbO2(have shortest service life)
5, Ti/SnO2+Sb+CF/PbO2 has been prepared by others in my lab, (CF=Carbon fiber, this anode is said to be the best)

The Bi doped Tin Oxide anode has been described as useful for (Per)Chlorate making in US 4272354.

The main use for ATO in the (Per)Chlorate making scene is as a coat between Ti and LD.
There is a discussion of obtaining DTO (Doped Tin Oxide) coatings in the section on Ti substrate LD anodes.

A Perchlorate cell was set up using almost pure Chlorate. An ATO anode was run in this cell for approx. four times the theoretical (100% CE) run time of the cell. A sample of solid was obtained by evaporating a portion of cell liquid. The Chlorate content of this solid was found to be 69%. Therefor the anode is not a good Perchlorate anode.

Below is a discription of making an ATO anode from RPW.

[ATO Morphology]

See also: Preparation, Micromorphology and Stability of Tin Dioxide Thin Films @