Articles relating to Lead Dioxide and Chlorate/Perchlorate.
Journal articles relating to Lead Dioxide and ClOx
Origin and Name Size
JES Vol.104, No. 7 (July 1957) page 448
Electrolytic Production of Bromates. here
pdf file
JES 104, (1957) page 494
Investigation on the Structure of the Color Compound in Caustic here.
JES Vol.105, No. 2 (Feb. 1958) page 100.
Lead Dioxide Anode for Commercial Use. here
JES Vol. 105, No. 3 (March 1958) page 151.
Electrolythic Production of Sodium Perchlorate Using Lead Dioxide Anodes. here
5 pages
JAE 22 (1992) 200-203.
Lead Dioxide on Ebonex (Ti4O7) for Ozone generation here
JES 105 No. 11, (1958) page 624
Textures of Electrodeposited Lead Dioxide
5 pages
JES Vol.108, No. 8 (August 1961) page 798.
Lead Dioxide Anode in the Preparation of Perchlorates. here
8 pages
JES Vol.116, No. 1 (Jan 1969) page 114.
High current density Chlorate cell using Platinized anodes here
zip of .DJVU
JES Vol.116, No. 1 (Jan 1969) page 146. On the Mechanism of Anodic Chlorate Oxidation +
JAE 17 (1987) 33-48 Formation of Perchlorate on LD Anode +
JES Vol. 103, No. 3 (March 1956) page 166. Studies on the Mechanism of the Electrolytic Formation of Perchlorate +
info. from "The Electochemical Industry" here
zip file containing
4 .djvu files
JES Vol.116, No. 2 (Feb. 1969) page 203.
Electrolytic production of Perchlorate by Lead Dioxide Anode.
Artical comparing Lead Dioxide and Pt. It also discussed and shows the effects of working parameters on the process.
5 pages
JES 116, (1969) page 1076
Electrical Properties of Electrodeposited Lead Dioxide Films.
4 pages
JES 121, (1974) page 70
Mutual Effect of Current Density, pH, Temperature, and
Hydrodynamic Factors on Current Efficiency in Chlorate Cell Process
+ page 1606 for discussion. A good, but advanced, read on interrelation of cell parameters, here.
zip of pdf
Thesis on modern Chlorate cells using DSA/MMO here. zip of pdf
JES Vol.123, No. 9 (Sept 1976)
Preparation and Application of Graphite Substrate Lead Dioxide (GSLD) Anode. here
JES Vol.126, No. 9 (Sept 1979) Electrochemical Behaviour of the Oxide Coated Metal Anodes
(DSA Anode, good artical on actually making Oxide Coated, Ti substrate DSA Anodes) here
JES Vol. 140, No. 10 (Oct 1993) page 2764.
The structural changes of PbO2 anodes during ozone evolution.
7 pages
JAE 1, 207 (1971)
Upuda et al. Large scale production of Perchlorates directly from Chloride
This article is available in the Sodium Perchlorate section.
6 pages
JAE 17 (1987) page 22.
Insoluble anodes of porous Lead Dioxide for electrosynthesis: prepatation and characterization.
11 pages
JAE 18 (1988) page 314.
Insoluble anode of Alpha Lead Dioxide coated on Ti for electrosynthesis of Sodium Perchlorate here.
zip of .DJVU
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan Vol. 23, No. 4, 115 (1950)
Massive + GSLD Anode made with spinnning, here.
750k PDF
Chemical Reviews 72 (1972) page 679
The Lead Dioxide Anode.
34 pages
Chemical Eng. July 19, 1965 page 82.
New anodes show off for chemical producers.
2 pages
Chemical Eng. August 14, 196 page 136.
Producing Captive NaClO3 in Integrated Pulpmills.
3 pages
Chemical Engineerign Progress. Sept. 1957. Large Scale Continuous Production Of Ammonium Perchlorate, here.160k
Chemical Engineering Progress. Nov & Dec.. 1961.The manufacture of Perchlorates (I) & (II) here.190k
Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Kirk-Othmer. Chloric acid and Chlorates here. 176k pdf
Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Kirk-Othmer. Perchloric acid and Perchlorates here. 126k pdf
Ullman. Chlorine Oxygen acids and salts here.832k pdf
Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry
Articles under Chlorate, Perchlorate and Lead dioxide.
13 pages
Electrochimica Acta 15 (1970) page 1615.?
A Legendre,"Herstellung von Perchloraten durch Elektrolyse"
Chemie-Ing.-Techn. 34, 1962, number 5, page 379.
Artical comparing Lead Dioxide Anodes and Pt Anodes for making Sodium Perchlorate
Available here in pdf format.
An article of unknown origin about Lead Dioxide Anode production, Article here41K
A document written by Swede on Lead Dioxide Anode production using MMO substrate, here48K zip of html
Article from Encyclopaedia of Electrochemistry Lead dioxide anode11k
Perchloric acid. Russian Chem. Reviews Vol. 32 No. 5 (1963)
See Perchloric acid section
PDF 1.960Mb

JES = Journal of the Electrochemical Society.
JEC = Journal of Electroanalythetical. Chem.
JAE = Journal of Applied Electrochemistry.

Number, Date and Title
US 985,724
Ammonium Perchlorate from Sodium Perchlorate
US 1,327,985
Ammonium Perchlorate sensitization with Chlorate
US 1,453,984
Ammonium Perchlorate from Sodium Perchlorate Available Here
US 2,392,769 Destroying chlorate using SO2
Available Here
US 2,392,861
Perchloric acid manufacture from NaClO4 and HCl
US 2,733,982
Perchlorate from Chlorate by heating
US 2,739,873
Making Ammonium Perchorate and controlling cyrsyal sizes
US 2,813,825
Method of Making Sodium Perchlorate using Persulphate additive
Available Here
2,846,378 (19??)
2,945,791 (1960)
Inert Lead Dioxide and process of production (GSLD)
This is a major patent used my industry to make large GSLD anodes for tonnage quantities of Perchlorate.
3,020,124 (1962)
Lithium Perchlorate production.
Hollow lead dioxide anode made from Powered lead dioxide and polymer and glued together
3,493,478 (1970)
Electrolythic preparation of perchlorates.
No separation of chlorate, using F. here
3,632,498 (1972)
Beer Patent. Various DSA Anodes.
3,634,216 (1972)
Electrodeposition of lead dioxide.
Method of producing a coated anode.
3,880,728 (1975)
Manufacture of lead dioxide/Titanium composite electrodes
3,887,398 (1975)
Prevention of deterioration of lead dioxide
3,940,323 (1976)
Anode for electrolythic processes (DSA).
4,008,144 (1977)
Ceramic substrate lead dioxide anode.
Available here
4,026,786 (1977)
Preparation of lead dioxide anode.
Glass beads, low pH.
Adding Bismuth to lead dioxide.
4,040,939 (1977)
Lead dioxide electrode
Uses Ti + tin oxides
Manganese dioxide over lead dioxide.
4,064,035 (1977)
Lead dioxide electrode
Two layered electrode using alpha and beta PbO2.
Electrodeposition of Ruthenium.
4,101,390 (1978)
Lead dioxide anode from an electrolyte which contains dissolved Bismuth
4,159,231 (1979)
Method of producing lead dioxide cathode.(anode?)
Uses AC on DC to control grain fineness, high pH and beads.
Has alot of references.
4,236,978 (1980)
Stable lead dioxide anode and method of production.
Cloth wrapped GSLD Anode.
DSA Anode using Platinum, Palladium and Tin Oxide
4,388,210 (1983)
High surface area lead oxide composite and method for making
Activates lead oxides using ozone
4,415,411 (1983)
Anode coated with beta-lead dioxide and manufacture.
Used Ti and Pt substrate.
4,510,034 (1985)
Coating type insoluble lead dioxide anode
Coating a porous metal and the inside of pours
Lead oxide coated electrode.
5,332,634 (1994)
Method of making lead electrodes
Haloganated lead compounds reduced to form PbO2
US Pat. 5,391,280 (1995)
Electrolythic electrode and method of production
Ti substrate + lead plate + Alpha + Beta PbO2
US Pat. 5,431,798 (1995)
Electrolythic electrode and method of production
Ti substrate + lead plate + Alpha + Beta PbO2 + SnO2
US Pat. 5,545,306 (1996)
Electrolythic electrode and method of production
Ti substrate + lead plate + Alpha + Beta PbO2
US Pat. 5,683,567
Valve metal + tin oxide + Alfa & Beta Lead Dioxide.
British Patent No. 121,727 (1919)
Ammonium Perchlorate from Sodium Perchlorate
German Patent No. 103,993
Ammonium Perchlorate from Sodium Perchlorate
Swedish Patent No. 44,704
Ammonium Perchlorate from Sodium Perchlorate

Patents from 1974 and later can be downloaded in scanned form from IBM patent server at
at http://www.patents.ibm.com/ibm.html
Patents are also available in ASCII form from the following link.
US Patent office
The above link has ascii text, but you can get images of the patents if you so wish.
Another great site is
This last link has older patents (older than the other two sights) in scanned form and also has up to date patents in ascii text form.

Electrodes of conductive metal oxides (ECMO), 2 volumes
Edited by S. Trasatti, Elsevier, NY 1980-1981 (A pure research book)
Perchlorates. Their Properties, Manufacture and Uses.
J.C. Schumacher. Reinhold, NY (1960)
Americal Chemical Society Monograph Series, here.
Chee- Yan, Chan, et al, eds. Alkaline Earth Metal Perchlorates.
LC 85-641351 (Solubility Data Ser: No. 41) 304p. 1989 120.00 (0-08-040198-8, Pergamon Pr)
Comprehensive Treatise of Electrochemistry Vol. 2 Electrochemical Processing.
J O'M Bockris, B E Conway, E Yeager, R E White. Plenum Press N.Y. 1981
A good discussion about Chemistry of Chlorate and Perchlorate making.
Industrial electrochemistry
C.L. Mantell Mc Graw Hill, NY (1931)
Electrochemistry: Theoretical principles and practical applications.
Milazzo, Giulio. Elsevier, NY (1963)
Industrial Electrochemical Processes
A. T. Kukn, ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1971)
Electrochemistry of lead.
Academic press NY (1979)

Patents on Spinal Cobalt Oxide
US 3399966 Cobalt anode.pdf
US 3977958 Baked Cobalt using Octoate's
US 4061549 Baked Cobalt uning Nitrates of Zr Zn Cu
US 4142005 Baked Cobalt using Co Nitrate
US 4222842 Baked CoOxide with TiO and TiH
US 4369105 Baked Substituted Cobalt Oxide Spinels on DTO
US 4428805 Baked Cobalt Spinels + DTO
More Patents
U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,073,873; 3,711,382; 3,711,397; 4,028,215; 4,040,939; 3,706,644; 3,528,857; 3,689,384;
3,773,555; 3,103,484; 3,775,284; 3,773,554; 3,632,498; and 3,663,280
24,369,105; 134,368,110; 144,366,042 all Substituted Cobalt Oxide Spinels Patents.

Patents on Manganese Dioxide
US 4,028,215 DTO + Manganese Dioxide for Perchlorate
US 4,051,000 Manganese Dioxide over Lead Dioxide
US 4,072,586 Manganese Dioxide for Perchlorate
US 4,208,450 Manganese Dioxide on DTO
US 4,265,728 Manganese dioxide on DTO

Patents on Semiconductor anodes and coatings
US 2564707 DTO films on glass
US 3627669 Example of bareTin Oxide anode
US 4272354 Example of SnO2 + Bi2O3 for (Per)Chlorate
US 4839007 bare SnO2 for waster water treatment
WO 01/48268 A1 International Pat. on bare Tin Oxide anode

Articles on Semiconductor Anodes
The Preparation and Characterization of Tin Dioxide coated Titanium electrodes
Hecrrochimico Acta, Vol. 42, No. 7, pp. 1091-1099, 1997
Physical and electrochemical properties of SnO2 Anodes
Characterization and Stability of Doped SnO2 Anodes
Ga Doped ATO anodes for waste water treatment
Chemosphere 70 (2008) 1629–1636

Articles on Magnetite.
Origin and Name
J. Electrochem Soc. 118, p1709 (Oct. 1971)
R. Itai, M. Shibuys, T. Matsumara, G. Ishi.
Electrical Resistivity of Magnetite Anodes.
Heller, H. H., Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 87, 501-10 (1945)
Dykstra, J., and W. C. Paris, US Atomic Energy Comm., K-1428, 14PP. (1959)
JEC 99 (1979) 299. The electrodissolution of Magnetite (1)
JEC (197?). The electrodissolution of Magnetite (2)
Bulygin, B. M., Zhur, Priklad, Khim., 31, 1832-6 (1958)
Thiele, H., E. Weise, Z. Elektrochem., 55, 193-9 (1951)
Mantell, C. L., "Electrochemical Engineering," 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, N. Y., 1960
Industrial Electrochemical Processes
A. T. Kukn, ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1971) page 533. Available in Magnetite Anode section.
Electrochem. Technol. 6, 402-404(1968)
Electrolytic manufacture of Sodium Chlorate with magnetite anodes.
T. Matsumura, P.Itai, M. Shibuya, and G. Ishi. Available in Magnetite Anode section.
Howard, H. C., Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc., 43, 51 (1923).
Oxygen overvoltage of artificial magnetite in chlorate solutions
An unsuccessful attempt at making Perchlorates using magnetite....
US Patent No. 1,226,121
US Patent No. 1,226,122
US Patent No. 1,226,123
Arc furnace for melting Magnetite and making the actual anode.
US Patent No. 2,727,842
Magnetite anode by heating iron in a steam atmosphere at 1000Co.
US Patent No. 3,232,858
Magnetite Anode by melting, casting and then annealing Magnetite.
Available in Magnetite Anode section.
US Patent No. 3,264,667,858
Magnetite Anode made by putting magnetite particles into Lead substrate.
US Patent No. 3,850,701
Magnetite anode electroplating magnetite from Ferrous Sulphate and then heating in a steam/H2 atmosphere.
US Patent No. 4,105,530
Magnetite anode using glass and other oxides and sintering.......
US Patent No. 4,235,681
Magnetite anode using a combination of Magnetite and
lead metal powder.....and compacting with pressure.
US Patent No. 4,515,674
Sintered anode of Magnetite.
US Patent No. 5,143,746
"Abstract: A process for producing a magnetite-coated electrode which
comprises kneading an iron oxide powder, water and an organic binder
under a steam atmosphere ... and plasma spraying.......


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